Listed below are hyperlinks to components 1, 2, three and four ~ ctm
That is the fifth of six components of a dialogue of SoCalEd's plan to decarbonize California by 2045. This fourth "factor" of SoCalEd's 20C roadmap is to undertake low-carbon fuels. .
The small print beneath this graph clarify it higher:
-50% discount in pure gasoline consumption
-40% of the remainder consists of biomethane or hydrogen
-20% of heavy vans are powered by hydrogen
Lets tackle these three factors of "low carbon gas" in reverse order.
Hydrogen heavy vans
20% of heavy vans fueled by hydrogen is a technical nonsense, opposite to what SoCalEd says. See my Hydrogen Hype essay within the Blowing Smoke e-book for extra particulars on the numerous issues with hydrogen.
Briefly, hydrogen may be very troublesome to retailer and is barely an power intermediate (as a result of it’s produced from water or methane, any free hydrogen that has left the environment billions of years in the past. ).
Most industrial hydrogen is produced by steam reforming methane. When it comes to web power, it’s higher to "burn" pure gasoline relatively than convert it to hydrogen.
Hydrogen from electrolysis of water has a theoretical yield of 88%, however the sensible yield is about 75%. 4 p.c of economic hydrogen is produced by electrolysis at present. Utilizing renewable origin electrical energy to provide hydrogen, then use hydrogen in gas cells to about 60% effectivity is theoretically doable for heavy vans electrified, however the web helpful power accounts for under (zero.75 * zero.6) 45% of the unique renewable electrical energy.
The large drawback (huge pun) of heavy hydrogen vans is its gas cell. The large bodily issue is the scale and weight, to not point out the associated fee. A typical eight OTR '18 tractor with a trailer has an influence of about 600 HP (required to cross the Rockies and Appalachians), about 450 Kw. A Ballard 100Kw PEM gas cell for metropolis buses (SOFC can’t be activated / deactivated by thermal biking as a consequence of thermal stress cracking) has dimensions of roughly 1.2 mx zero.9 mx zero.5 m and weighs 285 kg. Its cooling system measures zero.7 mx zero.5 mx zero.four m and weighs 44 kg. The Ballard PRM 60Kw is 1.1m x zero.9m x zero.5m. A category eight tractor would wish 4 PEMs of 100 Kw plus one in all 60 Kw. Whatever the cooling, there’s a minimal area of 5.9 mx four.5 mx 2.5 m for the gas cell! Usually are not all cells, no truck – not appropriate. And the factor would additionally weigh at the least 1.four tons
If it sounded a bit unfair to SoCalEd's imaginative and prescient, it could have been the Class 7 "van" kind built-in supply truck, usually a diesel mannequin of about 250 hp, or about 185 kW. Two of the 100kw Ballard PEMs would suffice. The minimal area requirement (once more ignoring cooling) is 'solely' 2.four m x 1.eight m x 1 m. Nonetheless doesn’t match.
In abstract, hydrogen vans are apparently not doable.
40% of pure gasoline is changed by biomethane or hydrogen
This second half has two separate claims.
The declare referring to hydrogen has already been refuted above. Changing pure gasoline with hydrogen from steam reformation aggravates the "drawback" of CO2. Changing pure gasoline with renewable sources of hydrogen by electrolysis wastes 25% of the electrical energy; we’re higher with out conversion.
This leaves biomethane.
Methanogenic micro organism ingest hydrocarbons and excrete methane. That is true within the stomachs of ruminants and in landfills. SoCalEd's basic query is learn how to usefully seize vital portions of biomethane? Clearly not cow farts.
A whole bunch of methane extraction services in landfills use methane from the decomposition of waste to provide electrical energy utilizing spark-ignition diesel engines. There’s a massive one close to my Chicagoland townsite, situated alongside Willow Street, west of the lake. Google Earth will take you there. The Willow Hill Golf Course is now on the high of the big, previous dump. Methane assortment wells dot the sloping sides; Two Caterpillar spark-ignition diesel turbines are housed within the construction on the entrance to Willow Street.
However the biomethane ensuing from the decomposition of waste and wastewater is restricted in amount, each by the fabric of origin and by the views of manufacturing time, as a result of the digestion is a relatively sluggish course of. It’s doable to resolve the issue of the magnitude of the provision. SoCalGas is the most important pure gasoline utility in California. It has 20.9 million prospects. Seventy p.c of 40% biomethane represents "solely" 5.85 million prospects provided with biomethane. Nope.
50% discount in constructing pure gasoline consumption
Utility pure gasoline is primarily used for CCGT. SoCalEd loves quite a lot of renewable power, however will want pure gasoline for backup era. With sufficient renewable and backup power, this aspiration might be doable.
Residential pure gasoline is especially used for heating and scorching water. These features might be electrified, however at a excessive price for constructing house owners and for free of charge to SoCalEd, the identical drawback as for electrified autos (see earlier components three and four). The community would have a good larger set of "decarbonized" electrical energy, just about insurmountable renewable power points.
Thus, despite the fact that the low-carbon gas determine is massive, fairly and inexperienced, it’s composed of the weather just lately present in SoCal's periodic desk: impossibilium and hopium.